Seminar On An Overview on Web Accessibility

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Topic Name:
An Overview on Web Accessibility

Binita Tamang

Short Description:
Web Accessibility in its simplest definition is all about making sure websites work for the widest possible audience. This seminar would involve a quick introduction to Web Accessibility, Web Accessibility Issues, Guidelines etc.

Business Transcription:

Hi Welcome to the Seminar on web accessibility. First let me introduce myself.My name is Binita Tamang I am working as a senior UI designer. I joined Mindfire in 2012 and working here as designer. I work closely with open source team. I loved doing design works, my hobbies includes music, dance, sketching, interiors.

Now the idea behind the seminar on web accessibility is like when you are creating anything beautiful , useful and amazing to be created, it’s very essential to actually feel for it, we have to invest our emotions along with our intellect to create something that will useful impact a lot of people in any which way possible.

The purpose of the seminar is to give an overview of web accessibility but with it lies the latent motive of awakening empathy towards our users i.e. their needs, their environment and their limitations. The idea is to develop web sites or application keeping the end users in context so as to make it accessible to as many people as possible

Now there are few topics which I am going to discuss today.

First one is what web accessibility is and why web accessibility is most?

2nd one is what is an accessible design ?

3rd one statistics of global population,web users etc.

4th one WAI ARIA

I will give you one overview of web accessibility guidelines and standards

Then web accessibility checklist

Then common web accessibility issues and

How to make web accessible?

Then we have types of disabilities, then assistive technology for people with disabilities

And there will be a video to show you how a screen readers actually works?

Then video on braille display

Then web accessibilities tools

Very common mistake or ignorance we make during web development/examples

Useful links/resources.

And now

What is web accessibilities?

Web is a network so it has to be accessible as many people as possible its not like you select a group of users and only two those users is available. We have to make it in such a way that like people across all age groups like disabilities and normal people and everybody can access it. And they can navigate, understand and interact with web easily and then that can contribute to the web.

And now web accessibility encompasses all disabilities that affect access to the web, including visual, so when we are doing web development we have to put into consideration like few disabilities like visual like people who do not have the gift of sight, visually challenged people, auditory i.e. people who cannot hear, physical disabilities, speech, cognitive and neurological disabilities this things are discuss latter as we go on.

Next thing is that what is accessible design?

As I have discussed the design which can be access by everybody regardless of age group regardless of disabilities and can independent for browser, the medium for which they are accessing. The type of design which passes all the criteria can be regardless accessible design, because like we are developing a site or application, we cannot restrict that to a particular users or like we cannot depend whether the user is using mouse or not whether he is accessing the web body applications with the keyboard alone.

We have to think, we have to keep all those thing in mind so as to create accessible design ,there are the ways how people access the internet. Users who are visually challenged might access a web page using an audible interface such as screen reader software.

Visually challenged people will not able to see, so there has to be something auditory for them to get what is happening in web ,the web is all about and users with low vision might view the page with large fonts or high contrast colors this happens special with the people old age, they have problem in reading very small font size and also with the color contrast, they will not be able to make out like, if there is difference in background colors,text,it will very difficult for them to read, so we have to keep those things in mind and people with physical disabilities, if suppose I do not have the right hand then I will not able to use the mouse or another keyboard functions. So that time what will be make to accessible.

Basically Web is a very very important source of information, the information can vary from education, employment, government, commerce, health care, recreations and more, so it is equally important for each and every person to get access to that information, it is our responsibilities to look into it and make it accessible to a greater extent.

And now We the world – our total global population 7+ billion peoples. So 6 billion people have cell phone, 1.2 billion people are with disabilities, 600 billion people are the age of 60, 1+ billion people are mobile workers, 900 million people have low literacy/illiterate and Then 5 billion people never used internet 1 billion people used internet for less than 5yrs. And one of the 10 user local languages as their primary language and this fact is very essential to us because when we are developing something we have to get all those things, we have to keep everything in mind so that it reaches the most.

What is WAI?

WAI stands for web accessibility initiative like we have a set of rules and regulation to be followed in while web development i.e w3c standards for creating web pages and everything so looking into the accessibility factor WAI has come into play and it has brought out rules and mode of set.

WAI stands for web accessibility initiative and ARIA stands for accessible rich internet applications. WAI ARIA defines a way to make web content and web applications more accessible to people with disabilities. It especially helps with dynamic contents and advanced user interface controls developed with AJAX, HTML,java script, and related technologies.

It defines bunch of markup extensions, which can be used by the web applications, develops to provide additional information about the semantic of various element to assistive technologies like screen readers.

Tim Berners lee anybody knows him?

He is the director of worldwide wave and inventor. I came across the quotation the power of the web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.

Its meaning is very simple statement we should be accessible to everybody i.e universal regardless of language regardless of age, regardless of device we use. Now we will go quickly to the overview of web accessibility guidelines.

Web accessibility is formally defined by world wide web consortium(w3c)whose web content accessibility guideline became an official w3c recommendation in December 2008 .WCAG2.0 organizes web accessibility success criteria in to four general principles which we can make website accessible


Content most be perceivable to all the users i.e users should be able to be aware of the content or get access to the content regardless of varieties of senses output devices and settings. Operable: user interface components including menus, links and controls must be operable by all users. Keep in mind that users operate such controls using variety of input devices including mouse, keyboard, stylus, touch screen, speech and other assistive technologies.

Understandable: content and user interface must be usable and easy to understand. Like if u see must of the Indian government websites very hard to find a very small information also, which is very useful, so we have to design such a way that interface will be user friendly, it will very easy to getting you what you looking for exactly, that we have to think when we initiate the project

Robust: content must use standard technologies and be coded in a way that will increases the likelihood of its being supported across all web enabled technologies, including assistive technologies and future technologies. Its like starting from the HTML page you specify the documents type so from there itself ,like you will have to code it such a way that it will pass the browser compatibility issues and many other defects and also useful for future technologies.

Now there is a check list which needs to go for the order, every web page and web applications is different, you may or may not need to address every items of checklist, however it can be utilized throughout the life cycle for any web page project it will be helpful if u look into it.

Does the keyboard provides access to navigation, in particular the tab, the arrow, enter keys without the use of a mouse, many times we use ,we go through the site without using a mouse, so we should make sure that the tab are working up and down like keys are working.

2nd is that Using the keyboards for navigation it is the flow of websites like it starts from logo and then moves navigation part then the main banner and then the actual content of the sites. Do all elements( links,radio buttons, text boxes and drop down menus)work when selected .this should be keep in mind

Does the link text explain and provide content whenever you are having anchor text it has a tittle attribute, so user….anchor is all about without clicking it also and we have to make sure that this is the one of the major thing I have seen almost all of the developer we give image source, all space is almost blank every time, this is very common, the people undergoing disabilities is really important. All text is very essential for people with having disabilities, for us that is nothing but people undergoing disabilities its really essential, its like removing sugar from the coffee. We should be using caption for using multimedia elements.

This I will show you later. Then , is the web page organized such that it is readable without the use of an associated stylesheet? Many time our layout and style sheet get attached in the same style but we should make sure that the content part of the lead get separate in the style sheet ,what happens sometimes we disable the style sheet and see like we have created is readable ready to use for the people without the style. If we put up the style, even we can able to give content to the use others ,users should not be blank like what is there in the websites, it should not completely go up.

Then are there color elements that cannot be identified easily?

We should make sure the color we use that not very dull and its should be bright enough for the user to read through. Then Are data tables coded with column heading and row name in the scope?

This is for the making tables accessible, we have to give heading to the row, tables, rows and also adding summary to the table will be helpful. we have to check whether the web page have frames if frames are used, we have to make sure that no frame content is there, suppose frame is not supported at least no frame content will be available to the user, if there is a limited time response are users prompted to request more time.

Are electronic from elements organized in a logical tab order and labeled?

The forms which is the most important part of a websites it connect user with the websites most of the interaction happens with the forms, we have to make sure the form is accessible in all ways like through mouse through keyboards .

Are links provided for applets, plug-inn or third party software that might be required to access content on the web page?

We have to make sure that there is a link if suppose that is not working we have to give a correspondence to it, if suppose flash is not working we can give a link which says a download flask or something like that.

So these are some of the check list I have collected from the full checklist i.e. available in this link, if anybody wants to go through it ,I will provide the these are the checklist, web accessibility checklist.

Then, let discuss common accessibility issues -

Failure to includes text alternatives for images, Use of CAPTCHA(completely automated public turning test to tell computers and human apart), Failure to provide adequate alternative for other in accessible content, Failure to use HTML header elements appropriately, Failure to explicitly associates from inputs with their labels, Failure to ensure sufficient difference between foreground(text)color and background color, Failure to identify data tables ,summary or caption, Failure to mark up data tables correctly, Failure to ensure sites can be used without the mouse. Use of on change event handlers with select menus.

There are different assistive technologies, like screen readers for blinds, braille displays, screen magnifiers and optical character recognition.

How does a screen reader actually work? Check the YouTube video. Now for deaf people we have close captioning, transcripts and show sounds.

There are difference web accessibility tools. These are the links. [enter url to check it]

Did you guys find it helpful and useful? Thanks, that's all.

Tags: Web-Development, Web-Accessibility, WebApp, Webdevelopment, AccessibilityStandards, AccessibilityIssues

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